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Thursday, May 12, 2022
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Friday, August 06, 2021
The Role of Islamic Values and Formal Entrepreneurial Education in Creating Entrepreneurial Intentions among the University Students
This research aimed at determining the role of Islamic Values and Entrepreneurial Education in creating Entrepreneurial Intentions among the university students of Peshawar region. Apart from demographic factors, the study focused on eight dimensions of Islamic Values (Benevolence, Consultation, Cooperation, Self-Criticism, Gratitude, Hard-work, Perfectionism and Responsibility) and the formal Entrepreneurial Education received by students in the universities. The paper is based on stratified sampling methodology and targeted the undergraduate and postgraduate students of business degree programs. Quantitative technique was adopted to conduct the research. Data was collected through questionnaires obtained from 550 students of five different universities in Peshawar. Correlation and regression statistics were utilized to analyze the data. Results showed a positive relationship between Islamic Values and Entrepreneurial Education towards the Entrepreneurial intentions and the two factors combined contributed significantly in generating entrepreneurial intentions among the business students. This study would be useful for the university administration, business graduates, policy makers and government machineries in decision making.
Key Words: Entrepreneurial Intentions, Venture Creation, Islamic Values, Education, Demographics, Universities, Religious Beliefs, Business Studies.
MUHAMMAD BILAL KHAN and SYED SHOEB AHMED BOKHARI
Nexus between the Social Media and Political Participation: An Assessment of the Trends in Pakistan
This research has endeavored to explore the nexus between the political participation and the use of social media in Pakistan. While relying onto the main notions of the theory of e-democracy, media dependency theories and the social cognitive theory of mass communication, the researcher has developed an indigenous theoretical framework and a relevant research tool e.g. for the purpose of achieving the objectives of this study. The study mainly relied on the survey research methods and it used an online survey tool (google forms) i.e. for the purpose of data collection. The study used the convenient sampling strategy and the study had a target sample of 1000 participants. The study has not only attempted to provide a viable theoretical framework to study the relevant phenomenon e.g. the “nexus” between the social media and political participation, but it has also revealed many important facts which may be helpful for both the academia and the concerned policy quarters i.e. various govt. departments, political parties and leaders in Pakistan. The results of the study indicated that the social media has become one of the most vital means for political participation in Pakistan. Moreover, the instant study has confirmed that a significant correlation is existed between the use of social media and the trends of political participation in Pakistan.
Key Words: Social Media, Social Media Use, Political Participation, Political Culture, Political Efficacy, Political Knowledge.
SHARAF ALI and MUHAMMAD RAMZAN SHAHID
Entertainment Motivation Based Social Network Banner Advertising Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Entertainment Belief
Social media have changed users' entire approach to social interaction. Specifically, social network sites have become a favorite location for social contact and activity. The revenue of several social network firms like Facebook comes from advertising. The current research assesses the mediating role of belief about social network advertising as entertaining between users’ entertainment motivation and their attitude toward social network advertising as well as ad click behavior. Via an online survey, data were collected with 275 Facebook users in Pakistan. Results revealed users’ entertainment motivation to use social network sites as a multidimensional construct. Belief about social network advertising as entertaining plays a partial mediation between users’ entertainment motivation and their attitudes toward social network advertising. Similarly, it plays a partial mediation between users’ entertainment motivation to use social network sites and their social network banner ad click behavior. Attitudinal mediation between users’ entertainment motivation to use social network sites and their social network banner ad click behavior was not supported. Findings of the current research can be used in designing effective social network banner ads.
Key Words: Entertainment Motivation, Social Network Sites, Banner Advertising, Beliefs, Attitudes, Ad Click Behavior.
IMRAN ANWAR MIR, SHAHID IQBAL and RAZI SULTAN SIDDIQUI
An Ethno-Archaeological Investigation of Ethnological Materials of Kalashadur Museum at Bamborate, Chitral, KP, Pakistan
The significance to reach to the everyday life-knocking them and their culture has a marvelousness as usual facets of daily presence. The Kalasha and their structure bedecked with their households with which they are breathing within daily life approach area accommodating to reconstruct the term consumer in direction to depict the drive of Kalash society is being respite within their cultural consumption parameters. The cultural material of the Kalasha, to understand the tradition of cultural ingesting the is needed to query the assumption that integrated inescapably means fetching like to what one fascinates the objects. Several other contributions have been made on Kalasha cultural material particularly those revolving within their cultural anthropology and their material studies etc. The discussion will sight that how the Kalasha household objects execute these social relationships through a detailed discussion or of the respondent. Kalasha, the material culture, refers to the objects that have been acquired and brought into the home-based in a diversity of ways, and the main discussion rests upon how these things have been appropriated to maintain and breeding significant social relations and acquaintances. It is unavoidable fact that many of these objects have been acquired and managed as a result of gift-giving practices between family, friends. This process of exchange may have on an empathetic of how commodities move value and meaning after they have been exchanged. Kalashdur Museum Material culture educates not only the common mass but the visitors, nevertheless, focus not just on the artifacts themselves but rather the meaning of those objects to the people that they are unaware of their historicity. One of the landscapes that designate the Kalasha culture, humans apart from other aspects is the degree to which the people intermingle with the social objects whether they are used or traded, or they are curated or discarded within the timeline spaces.
Key Words: Archaeology, Investigations, Museum, KP, Pakistan.
AURANGZEB and SHAKIRULLAH
Barriers to Inclusion of Students with Special Needs in Mainstream Schools of Rawalpindi
Classroom context in developing countries exposed teachers at mainstream public schools to various challenges while implementing inclusive education. The focus of the present study is to explore significant barriers that teachers are experiencing with the inclusion of students with special needs in mainstream public schools at Rawalpindi. It further provides insight into strategies useful for inclusion. The study employed a qualitative design to gain deep insight into the problem. Respondents of the study were teachers teaching core subjects at the secondary level who were selected through purposive sampling technique. Semi-structured interviews along with the document analysis as well as reflective memos were used to collect data. Data were analyzed under the thematic analysis to draw upon the teachers’ challenges and strategies for their removal. The study recommends the initiative and continuity of training programs for mainstream teachers for their professional growth to implement inclusive education. The study also recommends the sensitization of administrators and school leaders to revisit and adapt the school policies to make collective efforts to achieve successful inclusion. The study findings have implications for the stakeholders, for policy and practice level planning in the inclusion of students with special needs in mainstream school settings.
Key Words: Inclusive Education, Mainstream Secondary Schools, Mainstream Teachers, Barriers, Challenges, Students With Special Needs.
IRUM ANDLEEB and MALIK GHULAM BEHLOL
Multimodality as a Tool to Create Positive Self-Image and Enhance Interactivity through Websites: An Investigation of Top Rated HEC Recognized Public and Private Universities of Pakistan
Present study investigated the semiotic resources exploited by the homepages of the official websites of top rated HEC recognized public and private universities of Pakistan with an aim to explore the tactics used to enhance the interactivity level of these websites and to attract the audience. It scrutinized the variations present in these websites in terms of basic layout and design features and the use of multiple modes of representation to create desired effects. The homepages of ten university websites were analyzed by applying Pauwels’ (2012) social semiotic multimodal framework for the analysis of websites as cultural expressions. The findings indicated that the interactivity level of these websites was independent of the sector they belonged to and most of the universities like LUMS, CIIT, Riphah International University, IIUI, UoK and BZU had adopted unique ways to provide the means of interaction to the target audience. Both the private universities namely LUMS and Riphah and some public universities like BZU, UoK and IIUI focused more on increasing the interactivity through social media sites and blog posts, CIIT focused on the use of multilingual approach to facilitate the audience while PU was the only one that provided a chance of one-to-one interaction between the users and the producers.
Key Words: Multimodality, Social Semiotics, Website Analysis, Interactivity.
YUSRA NIAZ, SADIA MALIK and ASRA KHAN
Efficacy of Online Media for E-learning among Students: A Comparison between Heavy and Light users.
The goal of this study is to determine the trustworthiness of internet media among Islamia University, Bahawalpur students. A survey method methodology was utilized to acquire responses from 300 respondents out of 1100 respondents by using simple random technique, 150 male and female students from Islamia University, Bahawalpur, for the objective of this study. Explore the effectiveness of online media for E-learning. According to the results of careful data collection, It is found that online media is not efficient in e-learning for IUB students. This means that other media are also important for learning. In addition, research has found that regular users of online media tend to know better than light users of online media. In other words, online media has an impact on ordinary users. According to the findings of the study; online media is ineffective in e-learning for Islamia University, Bahawalpur students. This implies that other forms of media are also necessary for learning. Furthermore, research has shown that regular users of internet media are more knowledgeable than casual users.
Key Words: Online media, E-learning, Effectiveness, Heavy viewers, Light Viewers.
MANAN KHAN TAREEN, TAYYABA LATIF and HANNAN KHAN TAREEN
Demoralization and Quality of Life in COVID-19 Patients
WHO declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic in March 2020 and it was evident that the world for now had to live with it. The patients of COVID-19 tend to get isolated which created a state of helplessness and/or hopelessness, negatively affecting their quality of life (QoL). An understanding of Covid-19’s impact-on QoL, psychological and demographic factors affecting the QoL could facilitate the rehabilitation of individuals having Covid-19. The present study intended to discover the relationship among demoralization, quality of life and sociodemographic variables in COVID-19 patients. It was a correlational study and sample was selected through non-probability purposive sampling strategy. Sample comprised of positive covid-19 patients (N=150). Demoralization Scale, COVID-19 Impact on Quality-of Life Scale and demographic sheet were used for data collection. Data was collected online by sending the survey form to the participants. Results showed that demoralization and quality of life had significant positive relationship. QoL and demoralization were worse in male patients as compared to female patients. This study will be useful as mental health organizations and practitioners could consider developing online support programs to enhance the quality of life of patients.
Key Words: Demoralization, Quality of Life, Gender, Covid-19, Pandemic.
SABA CHAUDHRY and NUDRA MALIK
A Brief Review of Opportunity Recognition in Entrepreneurship Research
Entrepreneurship is multidimensional in nature. The purpose of this paper was to gather and summarize the plethora of research on opportunity recognition and revealed the constructs specific to entrepreneurial opportunity recognition along with its antecedents and consequences. The study was based on the literature review of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition with emphasis on the leading prominent literature from authentic and well-reputed journals. This study employed the strategy majorly based upon empirical data over the last two decades i.e. 2000-2020. This review indicated that the field is empirically underdeveloped and numerous inconsistencies are existent in research conclusions. The study summarized the phenomenon of opportunity recognition which is referred to as the self-defined field of research. Moreover, the study suggested future research directions to recognize and exploit the business opportunities.
Key Words: Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneur, Opportunity Recognition, Business Opportunity.
SALEHA AZAM, SAJJAD HUSSAIN and HAMZA AZAM
Condition of Women Prisoners in Pakistan and Reforms for Improvements
In the present article the existing and prevailing poor conditions of prisons in Pakistan had been elaborated with specific situation of women prisoners. The outdated domestic laws and flaws thereof, international treaties, conventions and guidelines had been discussed with reference to the basic and fundamental rights of the inmates, especially women prisoners. At the same time the researcher had also focused on reforms from very root and rudimentary level to legislation. To cure up the situation the reorganizations required in all related institutions. The role of judiciary in contribution for betterment of jail conditions had also been imperative and researchers also added cases where judiciary made good contributions in this regard. It had also been further focused that what had been the main issues of women inmates and how to tackle and remove them. The researchers also made
recommendations/findings for the improvements of the conditions of female inmates in jail.
NADIA ZAFAR, SHAISTA NAZNIN and RIZWANA GUL
A Systematic Review on Challenges and Research Gap in Project- Based Learning Strategy
The 21st century learning requirements are different from the 20th century learning requirements. Now the critical thinking skills are the necessary requirements for the learning. So, to achieve the critical thinking skills various new learning techniques and strategies have been developed and applied. By applying new learning methods and strategies, various challenges have been faced by the researchers and instructors. The objectives of this study were to highlight the Project-Based learning strategy used in different educational levels, to discuss the challenges and their solutions and to present the research gap in the project-based learning strategy. This study will help the researchers and instructor to do more researches on the challenges and solutions of the Project-Based Learning.
Key Words: Critical Thinking Skills, Learning Strategies, Instructors, Learners, Problems.
QURATULAIN, MUHAMMAD HAFEEZ and IFFAT BASIT
Does Psychological Capital (PsyCap) affect Employee Work Engagement? Evidence from Review of Literature
Psychological Capital (PsyCap) is a positive psychology and a construct that has attracted the attention of researchers recently. This article is a review-based study of PsyCap and its association with employee work engagement (WE). A total of 279 relevant studies were found; however, most relevant studies were 19. Literature shows that PsyCap has four pillars or dimensions: Optimism, (Self) Efficacy, Hope, and Resilience. The review of prevalent literature on PsyCap and WE show that all four dimensions of PsyCap are positively correlated with WE. The review also revealed that PsyCap contributes to reducing stress, creating meaningfulness at workplace, improving confidence, vigor, dedication, and absorption.
Key Words: Psychological Capital (PsyCap), Work Engagement (WE).
MANSOOR ULLAH, FAYAZ ALI SHAH and SHAHID JAN
Evaluating the Perceptions of Primary School Teachers regarding SOLO Taxonomy
In 2006, the Government of the Punjab Province has reformed the examination system of primary and elementary level according to the SOLO taxonomy. The aims of this research paper is to find out the conceptual awareness of primary teachers regarding SOLO taxonomy and to analyze the knowledge of primary teachers regarding the different levels of SOLO taxonomy. The design of the research was descriptive. All the Primary School Teachers of Attock were the population of the study and four hundred (400) primary teachers were taken randomly as a sample. A validated research instrument was used for data collection. The data were analyzed through percentage. The major findings showed that majority of the teachers did not give right answers regarding the statement that creative thinking is examined in the level and majority of the teachers gave right answers regarding the statement that relationship between different aspects is examined in the level. At the end of the study, it was recommended by the researcher that training sessions related to SOLO taxonomy may be arranged for the primary teachers in the summer vacations and SOLO taxonomy based model papers may be provided to the primary teachers in the beginning of the academic year.
Key Words: SOLO, Primary, Teachers, Examination, Perception.
BASHARAT ALI KHAN, ASGHAR ABBAS and SADIA DILSHAD
Do Efficiency & Outreach Factors Predict Financial Sustainability: Evidence from Microfinance Institutions of Pakistan
This study has determined indicators of financial sustainability of microfinance institutions in Pakistan. This study has followed total population purposive sampling technique. The data from 2010 to 2014 was extracted from Pakistan Microfinance Review. Descriptive analysis showed that microfinance institutions have high operating costs, low yield on gross loan portfolio and have large scale outreach to clients. The econometric results of the study showed that yield on gross loan portfolio, portfolio at risk and average disbursed loan size are significant predictor of financial sustainability of microfinance institutions in Pakistan. Operating expense ratio, staff productivity, cost per borrower and breadth of outreach are not significant determinants of financial sustainability of microfinance institutions in Pakistan.
Key Words: Microfinance, Rural Support Programs, NGO-microfinance, Outreach Factors, Efficiency Factors, and Financial Sustainability.
KASHIF ALI, MUHAMAD AZAD and MUHAMMAD ZEESHAN
Impact of Work-Family Conflict on the Physical Health of Employees: Evidence Across the Banks in Lahore
In Pakistan, the environment in banks is very challenging. The employees used to work late hours. Most of the banks, especially the private banks even allowed their customers to do their bank account dealings before office hours, due to that employee are unable to fulfill their family roles and duties and faced conflict at work and in the family. This situation is enlisted as a work-family conflict. The present research is a cross-sectional quantitative research design with the survey as the method. The main objectives of the research revolve around the difference between men and women in work-family conflicts, the impact on their healthy living habits, consequences of work-family conflict on the physical health of bank workers in Lahore, Pakistan. The multistage sampling technique was used to select banks and respondents. The simple random technique was used to select four banks and a total of 200 sample respondents included 50 employees each from four different banks were randomly selected. Data were collected by using the Work-family conflict scale and healthy living questionnaire. The investigation outcomes discovered a noteworthy variance among men and women in WFC. Even a substantial change was seen among men and women in their physical wellbeing. A substantial moderate positive association has existed between WFC and healthy living behaviors. The findings of the research will be useful for bank workers, bank employers, and the public to frame their behavior, policies, and strategies to overcome this conflict. The banking sector should offer plans to deal with the mental tension like a vacation, time management courses, and relaxation to handle WFC among employees.
Key Words: Work, Family, Conflict, Mental health, Banks, Private, Public.
ASMA SEEMI MALIK, KASHAF IKRAM and AMJAD MAHMOOD
Relationship of Dispositional and Behavioral Factor: Moderation of Employee Voice Behavior in Corporate Sector
The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between dispositional factors i.e., core self evaluation and innovative behavior that is theoretically relevant to voice behavior. A survey was conducted measuring core self evaluation and innovative work behavior among 237 employees of banking sector. Core self evaluation and innovative behavior are positively related and this relationship is exacerbated by employee voice. The results indicate that core self evaluation is more predictive and has a significant effect on innovative behavior. Results also show that voice moderates the relationship of core self evaluation and innovative behaviour; voice enhances the indirect relationship of CSE and Innovative behavior. Researchers in future can look for more traditional organizational settings to validate these findings. This study has utilized field settings that have been have been rarely used in the past to examine the impact and purpose of employee voice behaviour. The study has also addressed the gap of analysing the role of dispositional factors other than the big five personality traits as important contributor to the purposefulness of employee voice behaviour in a field setting.
Key Words: Employee Voice, Innovative Behavior, Core Self Evaluation, Supportive Voice.
MUHAMMAD KAMRAN RAFIQUE and SHOAIB AHMED BUKHARI
Exploration of Workplace Hazards Faced by Healthcare Workers in Pakistan
Safety and quality care in hospitals is determined by the institutionalization of safety culture in healthcare settings. This study focused on identification of work place hazards in healthcare settings. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of occupational hazards that cause hindrance in delivering safer healthcare. Occupational hazards are a source of potential harm for healthcare workers. This study utilized a qualitative design based on focus group discussions with healthcare workers including house officers, post graduate trainees, nurses, and paramedic staff dealing with patients. The study was carried out at three regional hospitals. Six focused group discussions were carried out with healthcare workers including house officers, post graduate trainees, nurses, and paramedic staff. Focus group discussions were analyzed with the help of content analysis. The employees at hospitals face varying kinds of health hazards such as physical, biological, and psychosocial hazards that interfere with the smooth and efficient provision of safer care. The absence of safety culture norms in healthcare settings create the preconditions of occupational hazards obscuring meaning of work and drainage of motivation; damaging healthcare workers, patients, healthcare setups, families, and economy as a whole. This study revealed that safety culture is not fully implemented both in theory and practice in Pakistani context.
Key Words: Hospitals, Occupational Hazards, Occupational Exposure, Occupational Health, Safety Culture.
HALEEMA SAADIA KHAN and RUBINA HANIF
Sexual Intrusive Thoughts, Stalking and Implicit Self-Esteem in Early Adulthood
The present study aimed to explore the relationship between sexual intrusive thoughts, stalking and implicit self-esteem in early adulthood. It was hypothesized 1) there will be a positive relationship between sexual intrusive thoughts and stalking and negative relationship between stalking and implicit self-esteem in early adulthood. 2) Sexual intrusive thoughts and stalking will likely to predict implicit self-esteem in early adulthood. It was correlational research design. The sample consisted of 105 adults with age range 21 to 25 years (M=23, SD=1.5). The data were collected from different departments of University of the Punjab, Lahore. The Impact of Event Scale – Revised (Christianson & Marren, 2013), Stalking Behavior Checklist (Coleman, 1997) and Self-Liking and Competence Scale (Tafarodi & Swann, 1995, 2001) were used to collect the data. Results showed significant positive relationships between sexual intrusive thoughts and stalking and negative relationship between stalking and implicit selfesteem in early adulthood. Results also showed that stalking behavior negatively predicts the implicit self-esteem, while sexual intrusive thought did not predict it. Results showed significant difference in sexual intrusive thoughts among adults living in joint and nuclear family system. The results highlighted that awareness of hardy personality should be spread among the adults who have to deal with high stress situation and stop thinking about one person and keep themselves busy totally; occupy themselves especially mentally in whatever they like.
Key Words: Sexual Intrusive Thoughts, Stalking, Implicit Self-Esteem.
SALEHA NAEEM, SHAHNILA TARIQ and BEENISH MUBEEN
Living in Digital Spiral of Silence: A Case Study of Young Pashtuns
Social Media is being used throughout the world to voice opinions that are usually not acceptable in a society that ultimately leads to social change. However, in a religiously conservative society like Pakistan, this scenario is entirely different, people are not only openly condemned, threatened but are also killed for voicing their opinions when it comes to highly controversial and sensitive religious issues. This study focuses on the university-going youth of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan – the province which is most affected by such measures. Researchers applied quantitative methods in the form of a survey questionnaire and qualitative method in the form of in-depth interviews to study if young Pashtuns feel confident in voicing their opinions on social media or they remain silent for the fear of not just isolation or being rebuked but for the life-threatening part of it. The findings conclude that the young Pashtuns of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are living in a Digital Spiral of Silence due to fear of isolation and physical harm.
Key Words: Spiral of Silence, Digital Spiral of Silence, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Young Pashtuns, Online Extremism, Violence, Social Media, Freedom of Expression.
ARIF AHMAD, FARASAT RASOOL and AYESHA YOUNAS
Motivational Techniques Adopted by Principals to Motivate the Staff for Effective Performance at Secondary School Level
Purpose of this study was to know the motivational techniques used by the female principals of secondary schools to motivate staff for effective performance. The nature of this study was descriptive. Principal must take an active part in motivating teachers and improving the school's environment and teacher's performance for achieving its goals. The sample of the study comprises two hundred secondary school teachers from District Bagh AJ&K, Pakistan. The study is delimited to female principals only. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher to collect data. Validity was estimated, based on the opinion of experts in the educational management and reliability was calculated through SPSS-23. The data was analyzed and interpreted through SPSS. The study results revealed that teachers are of the view that Principals are not enthusiastic and not often appreciate teachers openly. The respondents are go up against that the principals acknowledges the teachers’ achivement. Teachers are slightly in favour that the principals are sympathetic. Mostly principals are not encouraging hard working teachers but teachers are satisfied with appropriate workload given by Principals. In some schools the Principals assign the duties according to their own interest. It clarifys that appropriate placement of teachers can increases their teaching performance and effectiveness. The majority of respondents agree that principals' faith in teachers' capacity to attain targeted goals leads to improved teacher performance. It
is recommended that principals should use motivational techniques like appreciation of teachers, encourage teachers openly and given a proper place according to their expertise.
Key Words: Motivational Techniques, Staff Performance.
MUHAMMAD ASGHAR ALI, SYEDA TEHREEM FATIMA and SAMINA RAFIQUE
Structural Case on Pronominal Clitics in Pashto
The goal of this paper was to analyze the assignment of structural Case to Pashto pronominal clitics. Pashto pronominal clitics are unique in the sense that though they may occupy different argumental positions they have the same morphological form. This is in contrast to the majority of clitics bearing world languages, where clitics are characterized by morphological cases; though, these languages belong to diverse families. Consequently, a question arises: Do pronominal clitics in Pashto have structural Case or not? The paper tried to answer the question and the answer was in affirmative. It proposed that the same mechanism for structural Case assignment was at work for clitics as was the case with the regular nouns/ pronouns. The fact that pronominal clitics had the same morphological forms, though they had different structural Cases, was because of the overriding effect of focus on such pronominals.
Key Words: Clitics, Structural Case, Pashto, Pronominal, Case Assignment.
Factors Affecting Export Performance of Sri Lanka
Exports are considered as one of the most important element for country’s economic growth and import substitution. But the exports of Sri Lanka has been seriously decreased from 4.1% to 1.44% during 2018 to 2019. Therefore the present study aims to investigate the relationship between export performance and its determinants in case of Sri Lanka using annual data over the period of 1987 to 2018. The findings based on Johansen maximum likelihood approach reveal that real effective exchange rate has negative and significant association with export performance which means appreciation of real exchange rate decrease the export performance in the long run. While remittances, imports, industrial value added and government military spending enhance export performance. The short run findings through Vector Error Correction method reveal that the industrial development and government military expenditures adversely affect the export performance. The policy implications of this study require focused effort on the part of management to regulate real exchange rate fluctuations not only to nurture the export performance but to maintain volume of imports and remittances as well. For this, the adoption of curative macroeconomic policies are suggested to attain market consistent real exchange rate which would ensure the access of Sri Lankan products to high income markets and improvement in quality of products due to international competitiveness.
Key Words: Imports, Industrial Development, Military Spending, Real Effective Exchange Rate, Johansen Co-integration.
LAILA KHALID, AMNA KAUSAR and MUHAMMAD MUNAWAR HUSSAIN
Perceived Social Support, Meaningful Activity Engagement and General Happiness among University Students
This study evaluated the relationship between Perceived Social Support, Meaningful Activity Engagement and General Happiness in University students. Cross-sectional research design was used. For data collection, non-probability purposive sampling technique was used. One hundred and fifty (150) university undergraduates aged 19 to 26 years (M=21.43,SD=1.75) were included in this study. Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey (EMAS) and Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) were used. Results of Pearson Correlation showed significant positive correlation between perceived social support, meaningful activity engagement and general happiness. Multiple Regression analysis showed that Meaningful Activity Engagement and Perceived Social Support significantly predicted general happiness. It was concluded that an increase in Social Support and Meaningful Activity Engagement can increase Happiness in University students. It was suggested that there should be social support groups in universities to increase the students’ social support, and some meaningful activity programs to increase students’ subjective happiness.
Key Words: Perceived Social Support, Meaningful Activity Engagement, General Happiness Introduction.
BRIRA AFZAL and AMINA OBAID KHAWAJA
An Analysis of the Implementation of Protection Against Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2010: In the Light of Decisions of Judicial Forums in Pakistan, (2011-2015)
In this paper we attempt to find the flaws in implementation of The Protection against harassment of women at workplace Act, 2010 in the light of decisions pass by August institution of Ombudsman, Civil Courts and Apex courts of Pakistan. Harassment is universally recognized phenomena which hinders the way of prosperity of nation and de moralize the women participation in employment. Pakistan being one of South Asian country has its own cultural traits, religious obligations and social norms. Females are not considered as free agent to act arbitrary. Keeping in view Constitutional concept of 3P; s, Government of Pakistan enacted Anti-Harassment laws to address the issue with iron hands. It is well said that Law without proper implementation is of no use, Judiciary and Office of Ombudsman are identified as legal forums to entertain the complaints on the issue and implements the provisions of Enactments 2010.The main focus has been made on the complaints and suits filed under The Act, 2010 and decisions thereon. In this regard comprehensive study is carried out of the judicial forums in order to ascertain the applicability of The Act, 2010 in Pakistan.
Key Words: Act 2010(The Protection Against Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2010), Pakistan, Employee, Ombudsman, Judiciary and Management.
JOHAR WAJAHAT, HIRA SHAHJEHAN and AARZOO FARHAD
Semiotic Study of the Poem Birches by Robert Frost
‘Birches’ an eminent poem by Robert Frost has been analyzed here from semiotic perspective. This poem is a pastoral lyric as the poet uses a number of natural elements like birches, woods, cobwebs, winter, snow, branches and heaven to signify life and its various situations. As these words have various symbolic connotations, so readers particularly students of literature face problems in true comprehension and appreciation of author’s point of view. This paper intends to enlarge readers’ critical perception in literature. In addition, this study applies a new analytical framework, semiotics for analysis of the poem. Thus, it provides a new angle for the researchers to judge a poetic work.
Key Words: Style, Semiotics, Signs, Images, Symbols, Birches.
MUHAMMAD ILYAS MAHMOOD, ABIDA SHAMIM and MOBASHRA MOBEEN
Investigation of the Challenges of Quality Management System ISO 9001:2015 at Public and Private Sector Universities
The purpose of the present comparative study is to investigate the challenge as the perception of HODs related to quality management system ISO 9001:2015 at public and private sector universities. This study is descriptive and exploratory in nature. The population consisted of all the HODs from public and private sector universities of Punjab, Islamabad, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Through simple random sampling, twenty-eight HODs are selected randomly. Data is collected through a self-develop questionnaire. The analysis of the data found that ten challenges for the successful implementation of quality management systems in universities. Moreover, there is no significant difference found between HODs perception regarding challenges in the successful implementation of ISO9001:2015 in public and private sector universities. After ranking the responses in public sector universities top challenge is the existence of accreditation and in private sector universities lack of top management, commitment is top of the list. The study suggests that HEC formulate a strategy for meeting the ISO requirement for the superior quality of service for international certification. The study also contributes knowledge in the area of the quality management system and provides awareness for the policymaker, top management personnel of universities, faculty members, HEC, and different funding bodies about existing challenges in the implementation of international standards in Pakistani universities.
Key Words: ISO 9001:2015, Challenges, Universities, Quality Management System.
SUNBLE BIBI and WAJEEHA AURANGZEB
Neo-Realism and American Space Policies, Capabilities and Endeavours
Neo-realism effectively provides the theoretical lens to understand the American Space policies, capabilities, endeavours, and accomplishments in space realm. According to the neo-realism it is the anarchic international system that dictates the behaviour of units/states. There are two offshoots of neo-realism: defensive and offensive realism. Defensive realism aimed at security maximization and offensive realism aimed at power maximization. Main hypothesis is that US is both security and power maximiser in outer space and neo-realism provides effective theoretical understanding of the American space program. America is maintaining its hegemony and control in space because it knows that the one who dominate in the space will dominate in the terrestrial power domain. USA is maintaining its full spectrum dominance in space. Reagan incepted “Star Wars” and “Strategic Defence Initiative” program, Trump inaugurated a separate space force, US withdrew from Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty, its Antisatellite tests, X-37B capability, and American use of space technology in Operation Desert Storm of 1991 and Operation Iraqi Freedom of 2003 indicated that America regarded space as essential component to amalgamate its space assets with terrestrial warfighting capabilities and to enhance its space power posture and offensive space capability. The scope of the study is that this article is using descriptive, analytical, qualitative, and deductive research approach where theoretical framework of neo-realism, defensive realism and offensive realism are used, applied, tested, and verified. The rational of study is that it provides the detailed theoretical analysis of American space policies, endeavours, and capabilities.
Key Words: Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI), Space Force, Space Assurance, Star Wars, Anti-Satellite (ASAT), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ground Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS).
Critical Analysis of Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act 2016 in Pakistan
The world lives in a digital age, where the humans’ can't imagine to live without the Internet. Technology has become an integral part of our daily lives, and with thesignificant advancement of technology comes a significant increase in cybercrime. With the introduction of more social media platforms that use millions of data points per second globally, the use of information is growing by the day. These data contain sensitive information such as trade secrets, privacy concerns, and security concerns. The number of electronic crimes is growing by the day, and these cyber crimes can have an impact on an individual, an organization, or even an entire nation. The study intends to investigate various types of electronic crimes occurring in Pakistan and their consequences, authorities working for the implementation of the "Protection of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016" and the steps taken by them in this regard, the role of the "Pakistan Telecommunications Authority" (PTA), and judicial implementation of the "Protection of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016." In addition, the study thoroughly investigates the relevant sections of PECA and provides the best possible solutions and recommendations. Qualitative research was used to study and analyze the impact and challenges caused by cybercrime. For this reason, the interviews with jurists and lawyers, as well as discussions with lawful authorities and members were held to gather the primary data. Finally, the purpose of the "Protection of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016," the powers conferred on the PTA, violations of citizens' constitutional rights, and recommendations to improve the system are discussed.
Key Words: Electronic Crimes, Cybercrime, Protection of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016.
IQRA GUL, ABDUS SAMAD KHAN and SHAISTA NAZNIN
The Deprived Children and Their Rights under the Law
A deprived child is one who does not have access to the material, social and psychological resources which are necessary for normal physical and mental development. There are several international treaties and conventions aiming to ensure an optimum growth environment for children who are free from neglect, abuse, or victimization. Pakistan also has such laws at the national level which are based on the teachings of Islam. It is necessary to implement these laws in order to save our children and safeguard our own future.
Key Words: Interpol, UNICEF, ECPAT, OHCHR, UNCRC.
USMAN HAMEED, SULTANA MUSTAFA and NAVEED REHAN
Relationship between Awareness and Practices of Students Regarding Road Safety Rules
Everyday millions of students are interacting with the road and traffic system. The safety of students travelling home to school and schools to home by walking, by cycling or motor cycling and by public transport much needed in modern era. That’s why awareness of road safety rules necessary for students for good practices. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between awareness and practices of students regarding road safety rules. The objectives of this study were to explore the accidents rate faced by students during their education, to identify the sources that promotes awareness about road safety, to explore the awareness and practices of students about road safety rules and to explore the relationship between awareness and practices of students on road safety rules. The study was descriptive in nature so questionnaire was used as tool to collect data. The population of this study was the students of 10th, 11th and 12th class of public higher secondary schools in Punjab. Total 400 students from nine districts of Punjab were selected as sample with the help of simple random sampling. Data was collected by visiting sample by the researchers. The frequency and percentage were used as statistic for analysis and Chi-square test for inferential analysis. It was found that most of the students from urban areas faced accidents and they are driving without driving license. The curriculum was the main source for promoting awareness about road safety rules among students. There were strong relationship between awareness and practices of students on road safety rules. It was recommended that Motor way and national highway traffic police should keenly observed the rash driving on roads, then imposed heavy fines for better practice level.
Key Words: Relationship, Awareness, Practices, Students, Accidents, Road Safety Rules.
MUHAMMAD FAROOQ AHMAD, MASOOD AHMAD and TOHEED QAMAR
Role of Judiciary in the Politics of Pakistan (1947-2008)
Judiciary forms an important organ of Pakistan’s governmental structure. Its role cannot be denied in the formation of well-structured decision making process, and streamlining the developmental procedure. Since beginning of Pakistan, judiciary deal with Executive pressures. It is an open fact that in Pakistan, the political set up has always marred the independence of judiciary despite the constitutional safeguards for judiciary. The post-independence era is replete with examples of executive-judiciary clashes and important decisions being held by the higher judiciary in Pakistan which change the destiny of Pakistan. While the judicial revolution during Musharraf era has brought a clear change in the rule of law and the previous pressures being exerted by other organs of the government were clearly denied. Pakistan is an independent country and the need for judicial independence cannot be denied in any way. The judicial stand and the position now in Pakistan is more significant than before with clear say in the development of the country. The movement by the lawyers and the judicial personnel brought a clear change in the past status quo and the world also saw the constitutional provisions being upheld with prospects of solidarity and stability. For a common man living in Pakistan, rule of law and justice is no doubt an important issue and with the recent prominent role of judiciary with all the pressures being overthrown by it, we can surely assume a very strong role of judiciary in Pakistan in the upcoming years.
Key Words: Judicial Independence, Constituent Assembly, Martial Law, Democracy, Judgment, Supreme Court.
Managing Elementary Classrooms: Experiences of Novice Public- Schools Teachers regarding Behavioral Challenges of Students
Novice teachers are those who have teacher education, but they are new in the teaching profession. This study aimed to develop an understanding of the experiences of novice public-school teachers regarding student’s behavioral challenges in classroom management. Moreover, this study explored the variety of inappropriate behaviors that students exhibit in classrooms. In addition, challenges teachers experienced in managing these behaviors of students and the associated teachers’ problems. A qualitative semi-structured interview research design was used in this study, and a purposive sampling technique was used to select the participants. The data were collected from 20 novice elementary public-school teachers in Lahore who had less than three years of experience. The results of this study highlighted the inappropriate behaviors of students such as talking, telling lies, using foul language, making noise, bullying, doing naughty activities, showing aggression, stealing, and physically fighting with other students. The teachers used a variety of techniques to manage these behaviors, such as giving moral lessons, separating the naughty child, and shuffling the seating arrangement of students to keep them involved in lessons. The problems caused by these behaviors while managing class were wastage of time, other students got disturbed, and the attention of the teacher was diverted.
Key Words: Novice Teachers, Classroom Management, Behavioral Challenges, Public-Elementary Schools, Semi-Structured-Interviews.
AYESHA SALEEM, YAAR MUHAMMAD and SAJID MASOOD
Impact of Religiosity on Work Engagement and Job Performance: Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics
The study aimed to investigate the relationship of religiosity with work engagement and job performance. Further, based on the conservation resource theory, the study explored the moderating role of Islamic Work Ethics in a relationship of religiosity with employee work engagement and job performance. Responses were recorded from employees working in public sector organizations located in Peshawar. Adopting time-lagged approach and utilizing the purposive sampling technique data was obtained from 342 individuals. Data was collected from officer cadre. The obtained result yielded a direct relationship of religiosity with work engagement and job performance. Further, the moderating role of IWE was also confirmed. Contribution along with limitations and future research avenues have been provided.
Key Words: Islamic Work Ethics, Job Performance, Religiosity, Work Engagement.
MUHAMMAD TUFAIL, SHAHZAD KHAN and MUHAMMAD HAROON UR RASHID
Child Labour Pervasiveness and Intervention Strategies: The World Overview
The purpose of this research study was to investigate the ratio of children of age under 14 years working in the world and the strategies devised by the nations to check this social evil. The population of people from age 0 to 14 years is 1.9 billion around the world, (Statista, 2021) and it is 27% of the whole population. According to a UNICEF report, 2021 on Child Labor, slightly more than one in five (20%) children are engaged in child labor in the poorest countries of the world. Content analysis, one of the qualitative research methodologies was used to achieve the objectives. It is found that because of family issues particularly the financial constraints some children are forced by parents to work but mostly they themselves are convinced to support the parents. The children are working in hazardous conditions and are forced to work for hours than the defined labor hours but are paid a very negligible amount in return which again make them to live from hand to mouth. Moreover, this is an ultimate reality that the developing countries of the world can’t use invention strategies used by the developed countries to check this social evil but this problem could be solved by engaging industries or through a public-private partnership.
Key Words: Child Labor, Pervazsivness, Intervention Strategies & Overview.
STEPHEN JOHN, JAMSHED ADIL HALEPOTA and SUBHASH GURIRO
Perceptions of Teacher Educators About Inclusive Education: Challenges and Prospects
The notion of inclusive education has evolved as a key endeavour aimed at providing disabled students with equal access to mainstream schools without any discrimination. The purpose of the present study was to look into teacher educators' perceptions about inclusive education, as well as challenges and prospects connected with the implementation of inclusive education. The study included all teacher educators from teacher training institutions in Lahore. A total of 30 teacher educators were selected randomly as a sample to participate in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with teacher educators. Data were analysed by using thematic analysis. Most of the teacher educators perceived that including disabled children in regular classes was a challenging endeavour and had a negative attitude about total inclusion. They perceived outdated curriculum, length of course work, inadequate library resources, inadequate training of teacher educators, insufficient resources and facilities, and the gap between the government’s inclusive education policy and implementation strategy as major challenges in implementing the concept of inclusive education. Moreover, the teacher educators proposed strategies to overcome these challenges, including revision of curriculum, preparation of master trainers for the training of teacher educators, provision of necessary resources and facilities, administrative support, reducing the class size, recruitment of teachers with specialisation in special education, and collaboration between general education and special education teachers.
Key Words: Inclusive Education, Teacher Educators, Challenges, Prospects.
SAMINA SAFDAR, SUMERA RASHID and UM-e-FARWA
Fear of Covid-19 and Turnover Intention: A Mediated Moderation Analysis
The aim of the study is to examine the role of Fear of COVID-19 in turnover intentions using a mediated moderation mechanism of mental health and Islamic work ethics during the COVID-19. The was a crosssectional study involving 156 frontline nurses and doctors in district Mardan, Pakistan. For data collection, four standardized scales were used. The convenience sampling technique was adopted for data collection. The gathered data was run using various statistical analyses i.e. descriptive statistics, mediation and moderation. The findings of the study show that mental health partially mediates the relationship between Fear of COVID-19 and turnover intention. The study also shows that Islamic work ethics moderates the relationship between mental health and turnover intentions.
Key Words: Fear of Covid-19, Islamic Work Ethics, Mental Health, Turnover Intention.
SAYYAM, SHAHZAD KHAN and IHTESHAM UR RAHMAN
Leadership Styles as Predictors of Employee General Health and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
The study investigates the role of Perceived Leadership Styles as predictors of Employee General Health and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Software Engineers. This study also aims to explore how Perceived Social Support mediates the relationship between Leadership Styles and General Health of employees. The study is based on cross sectional survey design. The sample for the research consisted of 160 (men=80, women=80) Software Engineers, and data was collected from different software houses in Lahore by using purposive sampling technique. Leadership Styles were measured by using Transformational and Transactional Leadership Inventory (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990). To measure General Health of engineers, SF-36 (Ware & Sherbourne, 1992) was used. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour was measured by using Organizational Citizenship Behavior Checklist (Fox & Spector, 2012) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988) was used to measure the role of Social Support. A significant positive relationship appeared between Leadership Styles (Transformational, r=.24 and Transactional, r=.24) and Employee General Health, however, Citizenship Behavior did not show a significant correlation with either Leadership Styles (Transformational and Transactional) and Employee General Health. Social Support acted as a partial mediator in the relationship between Leadership Styles (Transactional and Transformational) and Employee General Health. Among socio-demographic variables, the number of dependents significantly predicted Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Furthermore, a gender based difference in General Health of the participants was observed where a significant gender difference was
found in self- reported Pain, Energy and Fatigue levels of software engineers.
Key Words: Perceived Leadership Styles, General Health, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Perceived Social Support.
SADIA NAZ, TEHZIBA KOUSIR and AMINA OBAID KHAWAJA
Allama Iqbals Educational Thoughts: Research and Critical Review
The main objective of the study was to determine Allama Iqbal’s educational thoughts. In this article, Allama Iqbal's educational thoughts have been explained and contemporary ideas also reviewed. Moreover, not only the basic ideas of education and philosophy have been sought but also the views of experts have been taken into consideration. Mix method study design was used. Allama Iqbal was a creator whose poetry and thoughts have the same meaning in the new age as in the beginning. He did
not give any formal idea of education. His philosophy of education can be deduce from his Persian and Urdu poetry. Allama Iqbal's thought is important than contemporary thoughts because it takes physics and metaphysics into account. That is why Allama Iqbal's philosophy of education is better than contemporary. This article is based on a scientific approach. This study highlights the reasons why Allama Iqbal is more important than contemporary philosophers. Findings of the current study demonstrated that the Allama Iqbal was a great educationist.
Key Words: Iqbal, Education, Theory, System, Ancients, Modern, Philosopher.
TARIQ JAVED, SHUMAILA MEHREEN and MUHAMMAD ISMAIL JOIYA
Student Unions as a Mode of Youth Participation in the Politics of Pakistan: Opinion of Youth in Punjab
Student union is a “student-run group” that offers its time and energies to give the student community in educational institutes opportunities and voice. The student unions provide a platform for chipping in the youth in practical politics across the World. The strength of these unions can be measured that it can establish and destroy any political or undemocratic government in a State. Universities can play a significant role but unfortunately, in Pakistan context, student unions involved in institutional political violence and currently are facing a bar on unions’ practices. The study has aim to find out that to what extent the student unions are a mode of youth participation in politics and opinion of youth in Punjab? The study is based on descriptive and analytical method about activeness of student unions in Pakistan especially in Punjab. A semi-structured questionnaire and interview based survey conducted from the youth of Punjab collect data about their opinions on student unions. It was find out that students are in the favor of unions for resolving their educational and on campus issues but reluctant to protect the political regimes .It is recommended that an appropriate procedure to promote the youth in the State politics is the reunification by the student unions in Pakistan.
Key Words: Student Unions, Political Participation, Political Interests, Youth, Politics in Punjab.
MUHAMMAD WARIS, RIZWAN ULLAH KOKAB and ASIA SAIF ALVI
Women Education and its Returns in Pakistan: A Case Study of Multan District
This analysis endeavours to explore returns to women’s education in Pakistan by using data that is collected from 200 working women in the Multan district. The ordinary least square method is applied to estimate the results. OLS estimates found that respondents’ educational level up to matric, intermediate, bachelor, and master’s or above is positively and significantly related to the monthly earnings of women. It is also found that the returns of education are higher for the higher educational categories. On the other side the variables age of women, occupation of women, and education level of the household are also found to be the positive and significant factors of women’s earnings. It is obvious from the study outcomes that a higher level of women’s education enhances their socio-economic status in society. It is recommended that technical education and educational infrastructure should be ensured to enhance the educational level and earnings of women in Pakistan.
Key Words: Women Earnings, Education, Multan, Pakistan.
SALYHA ZULFIQAR ALI SHAH, MUHAMMAD MUZAMMIL ASGHAR and AFSHAN ZULQURNAIN